, The source of thwater purifier alth litacy classroom - wa
Wastewater discharge means the water industry, tertiary industry and urban residents and other water users emissions, but does not include emissions from thermal power direct water cooling and pit displacement. In 2006 the countrys total sewage waste 73.1 billion t, which accounts for two-thirds of industrial waste water, tertiary industry and urban sewage 1/3.
1 water and human
鈶?moisture in 90% fetal body weight, 80% of infants, adults 60-70%;.
[123 ] human organs 鈶?water content: 99% eyeball, 83% blood, kidneys 82.7%, 79.3% of the heart, lung 79%, 76% muscle, brain 74.8%, 72% skin, bone 22%;
[123 ] 鈶?who once lost 2% of the water will be thirsty, lost 10% of the water will be unconscious, lost 20% of the water will die.
鈶?experiments show that: people can survive for a month without food, without water you can only survive for a week. .
2 water role in the human body
鈶?maintaining cell morphology, enhanced metabolism;
鈶?promote blood, tissue fluid circulation smoothly;
鈶?dissolved nutrients, it will absorb, transport, supply of the desired cells;
鈶?unnecessarily discharged to the outside of the body of impurities;
鈶?the blood was maintained at a neutral or slightly alkaline state;
鈶?distribute body heat, temperature adjustment and the like;
鈶?circulatory system, digestive system, excretory system, assimilation, thermoregulation, lubrication.
1. Waste water emissions
refers to the amount of waste water discharge water industry, tertiary industry and urban life household water emissions, but does not include a DC thermal power and the amount of cooling water discharge pit displacement. In 2006 the countrys total sewage waste 73.1 billion t, which accounts for two-thirds of industrial waste water, tertiary industry and urban sewage 1/3.
2. The World Health Organization (WHO) survey
鈶?body of the illness more than 80% of cancer 50% or more of water-related;
鈶?50% of the worlds child deaths are caused by drinking contaminated water;
鈶?1.2 billion people around the world due to drinking contaminated water suffering from various diseases;
鈶?every 15 seconds there is a child death due to poor water quality;
鈶?around the world due to water pollution caused by cholera, dysentery and malaria and other infectious diseases the number more than 500 million;
鈶?According to WHO testing found that the world today has 2221 kinds of water pollutants, harmful organisms 756 kinds, of which 20 kinds of confirmed carcinogenic, 24 kinds of cancer to the suspect, 18 kinds of help cancer-promoting, 47 kinds of mutagens, more than 109 kinds of trace organic contaminants, obviously harmful to the human body, causing disastrous consequences ...... biological endocrine disorders
1. the definition of pollution
Peoples Republic of China water pollution Control Act, promulgated in 1984 as "water pollution" under a clear definition of that water body of any substance which alters the change aspects characteristic chemical, physical, biological or radioactive, thus affecting the efficient use of water and endanger human health or harm the environment, deterioration of water quality caused by the phenomenon called water pollution.
2. Pollution Category
Depending on the contaminant impurities, contamination divided into chemical, physical and biological pollution pollution three categories. As follows:
1) chemical contamination:
鈶?inorganic fouling substances: an acid, a base, and some inorganic salts.
鈶?inorganic toxic substances: heavy metals and other substances is mainly the potential long-term effects, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and other elements.
鈶?organic toxic substances: various organic mainly pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and the like. Chemically very stable, biologically difficult to be decomposed.
鈶?aerobic contaminants: water contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and phenols, alcohols and other organic substances may be decomposed under the action of microorganisms, require a large amount of oxygen, so called aerobic contaminants .
鈶?plant nutrients: mainly sewage containing nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients, agricultural and drain residual nitrogen and phosphorus.
2) physical pollution:
鈶?contaminated suspended material: refers to the insoluble matter, sediment, rust, and other solid matter and the like contained in the water foam.
鈶?thermal pollution: the cooling water from various industrial processes, directly into the water, the water temperature may cause reduced dissolved oxygen present in the water increased toxicity of certain toxic substances and so on.
鈶?radioactive contamination: Due to the development of the atomic energy industry, build and test the application of nuclear isotopes and nuclear power plants, radioactive waste water, waste increased significantly, resulting in a certain degree of radioactive contamination.
3) biological pollution:
sewage, hospital sewage and some industrial wastewater contaminated water, can bring a number of pathogenic microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, parasites. .
3 water pollution problem
1) existing municipal water supply problem
Indicator 鈶?sensory properties (such as: color, turbidity was visually) -
鈶?chemical indicator gauge (PH value, total hardness, oxygen consumption) -
<渚涙按绠＄綉鐨勪簩娆℃薄鏌?/p> 鈶?toxicity index (chromium, arsenic, cyanide, fluoride, lead, mercury, etc.) - -
<姘村巶浼犵粺澶勭悊宸ヨ壓鐨勫眬闄?/p> 鈶?exceeded indicator bacteria (total coliforms, true coliforms, chlorine) -
鈶?radioactive target ([alpha] radioactive 尾 radiation) -
<绠＄綉浜屾姹℃煋銆佽搫姘寸郴缁熸按璐ㄤ笅闄?/p> 2) the water contains the following substances:
<鐭垮北寮€閲?/p> 鈶?particles: silt, mud and other particles -
鈶?odor: of Cl2, organic acid -
<鎴愪负鍏朵粬姹℃煋鐗╃殑杞戒綋锛屽奖鍝嶆秷姣掓晥鏋?/p> 鈶?hardness: Ca2 + , Mg2 + -
鈶?toxic ions: copper, iron, chromium, zinc, cadmium, mercury, tin -
鈶?toxic organic compounds: pesticides, fertilizers, detergents and other dissolved was -
鈶?radioactive material -
<鑲濊剰鍙婄缁忕郴缁熷彂鐢熼棶棰橈紝鐢熺櫧鍐呴殰锛屽啀鐢熺箒娈栧洶闅?/p> 鈶?microorganism: bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses -
3) secondary water pollution and health
[ 123] 鈶?WSO drinking water stored in the water tank or container tank, and then by mechanical pressure or high-rise building with natural formation pressure, the secondary water transport to the water supply system or a user stationSystem. More than 5 to 6 layers of drinking water systems typically rely on secondary conveyor. <鑲犺儍鐤剧梾
鈶?secondary water storage tank (tank) and the tip of water turbidity, the number of bacteria, coliform bacteria, iron, manganese, chloroform and the like compared with the finished water content increased. Mainly
4) secondary water pollution
鈶?unreasonable design of the storage tank; not completely water circulation, resulting in precipitation of impurities, the propagation of microorganisms;
the volume of the storage tank 鈶?is too large, more than the normal amount of water, resulting in depletion of chlorine, microorganisms multiply (experiments showed a very low residual chlorine in tap water stored in the water tank 6 hours, the residual chlorine after 12 hours that is 0);
鈶?tank , pipe wall corrosion, scaling, sediment;
鈶?infrastructure design and installation unreasonable;
鈶?poor health management.
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